H.E. Joseph Ejercito Estrada
13th President of the Philippines
Joseph Ejercito Estrada, original name Joseph Ejercito, (born April 19, 1937, Manila, Philippines), Filipino actor and politician who served as president of the Philippines (1998–2001) and later mayor of Manila (2013–19).
The son of a government engineer, Estrada entered the Mapua Institute of Technology with the intention of following in his father’s footsteps, but he eventually dropped out to become a film actor. Forbidden by his parents to use the family name, he adopted the screen name Erap Estrada. He played the lead in more than 100 movies, usually portraying a swashbuckling tough guy who defends the poor against the corrupt establishment. He also produced some 75 films.
In 1968 Estrada entered politics, successfully running for the mayorship of the Manila suburb of San Juan, a post he retained until 1986. In 1969 he was elected to the Senate. In 1992 he ran for vice president on the National People’s Coalition ticket. Although the party’s presidential candidate, Eduardo Cojuangco, Jr., lost the election to Fidel Ramos, Estrada won the vice presidential contest.
In 1998 Estrada ran for president, though his candidacy faced significant opposition. Ramos, who was constitutionally barred from running for a second term, endorsed House Speaker José de Venecia, and many of the country’s powerful businessmen opposed Estrada’s populist proposals. The Roman Catholic Church denied Estrada its support because he had admitted to having fathered four children by women other than his wife. However, he did have the support of Imelda Marcos, the widow of former president Ferdinand Marcos and then a member of Congress, and he enjoyed a devoted following among the country’s poor. Estrada managed to capture nearly 40 percent of the vote, handily defeating his nearest rival, de Venecia, who garnered only 15.9 percent. The margin of victory was the largest in a free election in the history of the Philippines, and Estrada was officially declared president by Congress on May 29, 1998.
Estrada’s tenure as president was short-lived, however, as a corruption scandal erupted in October 2000 when a fellow politician claimed that Estrada had accepted millions of dollars worth of bribes. In November the Philippine Senate began an impeachment trial, but it was abandoned after some senators blocked the admission of evidence. On January 20, 2001, Estrada was ousted amid mass protests, and his vice president, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, ascended to the presidency. Later that year Estrada was brought to trial on charges of plunder (large-scale corruption) and accused of having procured more than $80 million through bribes and corrupt dealings. Estrada denied the accusations, calling them politically motivated, and he remained relatively popular in the Philippines despite the charges. In September 2007 he was convicted of plundering and sentenced to a maximum of 40 years in prison. The following month, however, Estrada was pardoned by Arroyo. In October 2009 he announced his candidacy for president, but he was defeated in the May 2010 elections by Benigno S. Aquino III (son of Benigno Aquino, Jr., and Corazon Aquino).
In 2013 Estrada ran for mayor of Manila and defeated the incumbent, Alfredo Lim. After taking office later that year, he faced a number of issues, notably the city’s debt and inability to pay for basic services. In order to raise revenue, he sharply raised property taxes. Estrada faced a serious challenge from Lim in the 2016 race but narrowly won reelection. He ran for a third term in 2019 but was defeated.
Article by the Editors of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15 April 2020. (https://www.britannica.com/biography/Joseph-Estrada)